Take a look back at the landmark cases that shaped our nation.
Take a look back at some of the landmark Supreme Court cases that shaped the nation.
Marbury vs. Madison -- This 1803 case involving then-Secretary of State James Madison established the basis for judicial review and solidified the role of checks and balances in American government.
Korematsu vs. United States -- Justices sided against a Japanese-American man who refused to relocate to an internment camp during World War II, ruling the government did not violate his constitutional rights by doing so.
Plessy vs. Ferguson -- This 1896 case coined the term "separate but equal" for blacks, but only legally. Segregation remained in place for decades after that.
Brown vs. Board of Education -- In 1954, the Supreme Court unanimously declared school segregation laws unconstitutional, saying they had a detrimental effect on minority children. The ruling helped spur the civil rights movement.
Miranda vs. Arizona -- In 1966, the court ruled that police had to follow certain procedures to ensure the protection of a criminal suspect's Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination, leading to the creation of Miranda Rights.
Loving vs. Virginia -- In June 1967, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that laws forbidding interracial marriages violated the Constitution's equal-protection clause.
Roe vs. Wade -- The court's 1973 decision to legalize abortion remains one of its most controversial -- and divisive -- rulings.
United States vs. Nixon -- President Richard Nixon claimed he was immune to subpoenas when the Watergate scandal broke, but the Supreme Court disagreed. The secretly taped Watergate conversations were released and, soon after, Nixon resigned.
Bush vs. Gore -- This controversial Supreme Court decision effectively resolved the 2000 presidential election in favor of George W. Bush. Just three days earlier, the court halted the recount occurring in Florida.
District of Columbia vs. Heller -- In a split decision, the court in 2008 concluded that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to possess a firearm unconnected with service in a militia. It was possibly the most important government statement regarding guns in the U.S. since the Second Amendment was ratified in 1791.
Citizens United vs. Federal Election Commission -- In January 2010, the Supreme Court upheld the right of corporations to spend money influencing political campaigns, ruling that these entities ought to have the same First Amendment rights as individuals to engage in "political speech."
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